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Improving Golf Performance: The Impact of Interactive Metronome Training on Coordination and Timing Skills

Study - Published in Sports Biomechanics


Adult, Motor Skills, Sports Performance

This study took a deeper dive into the impact of Interactive Metronome® (IM) on golf swing performance, following up on a previous 2009 study by the same research team.

The goal was to analyze how IM training could influence the temporal synchronicity and domain-general abilities that are crucial for effective golf swing performance.

Experienced male golfers participated in this study, undertaking 12 IM training sessions over a span of 4 weeks.

The results demonstrated that the IM training led to improved timing, synchronization, and coordination between different joints during the golf swing, particularly in relation to the arms and golf club movements.

Abridged Summary & Results of Study

Synchronized metronome training induces changes in kinematic properties of the golf swing

AUTHORS: Marius Sommer, Charlotte Hager & Louise Rönnqvist


YEAR: 2014

Golfers who participated in Interactive Metronome (IM) training demonstrated improved timing, coordination & degree and consistency of synchronization between joint couplings of the arms and individual joints and golf club motions during the golf swing.


  • n=13 male golfers with 20- 34 years of experience and 5.0 to 19.5 handicap, who participated in 12 45-50 minute IM training sessions over a period of 4 weeks in the previously published study by Sommer, M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2009), participated in further investigation to measure the impact of Interactive Metronome (IM) on the kinematic properties of the golf swing

Pre-post assessments included:

  • 3D motion capture of club velocity at 3 different swing phases (backswing, downswing, and follow-through) with 3 different clubs (4-iron, 7-iron, and pitching wedge)
  • cross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings (wrist–elbow–shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing

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