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Reading Reinvented: The Link Between Improved Time Tracking and Reading Achievement

Published in Psychology in the Schools


Pediatric, Academic Performance, Language & Literacy Skills, Speech

This study, published in the journal Psychology in Schools, scrutinized the impact of Interactive Metronome (IM) training on the reading abilities of students aged between 7 to 10 years.

A total of 86 students from grades 1 to 4 participated, with students randomly assigned to an experimental group that undertook 18 sessions of 50-minute IM training, or a control group that participated in recess.

The study found that the students who engaged in the IM training performed better on measures of timing, reading efficiency, reading fluency, and phonological processing compared to their peers who only participated in recess.

Notably, the IM group demonstrated improved timing, two standard deviations greater than the control group. Furthermore, those with initially poor timing showed the most improvement. Importantly, none of the students were engaged in any other language or reading instruction during the study.

Abridged Summary & Results of Study

Improvements in interval time tracking and effects on reading achievement

YEAR: 2007


AUTHOR: Gordon E. Taub, Kevin McGrew & Timothy Z. Keith

Students that participated in Interactive Metronome training performed statistically better on measures of timing, reading efficiency, reading fluency and phonological processing as compared to same age peers that participated in recess. The IM group demonstrated improved timing that was 2 standard deviations greater than the control group, and timing improved the most in those with initial poor timing.


  • n=86 students (37 male, 48 female) ages 7-10 in 1st – 4th grades were randomly assigned to:
    • experimental group: 18 sessions of IM training, 50 minutes each
    • control group: recess
  • None of the students participated in language/reading instruction/activities during the study
  • Pre-post measures of reading achievement:
    • Millisecond timing via Interactive Metronome (IM)
    • Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III)
    • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)
    • Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TWRE)
    • Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TSWRF)

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