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Enhancing Cognitive Rehabilitation: Interactive Metronome Training for Soldiers with Traumatic Brain Injury

Study - Published in Neuropsychology


Adult, Cognitive Skills, Military Readiness

This randomized, controlled study investigated the potential benefits of Interactive Metronome (IM) training as a supplementary tool in standard rehabilitation care (SRC) for active-duty soldiers dealing with cognitive deficits after experiencing a mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Soldiers who received IM training alongside SRC demonstrated statistically significant improvements in a range of cognitive areas, including attention, inhibition, processing speed, motor speed, and memory recall, both immediate and delayed.

The soldiers in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group (who only received SRC) on 21 out of 26 neuropsychological tests. Future reports on this study are expected to provide results from a 6-month follow-up and the analysis of electrocortical (EEG) data.

Abridged Summary & Results of Study

Effects of Interactive Metronome® Therapy on Cognitive Functioning After Blast- Related Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

YEAR: 2013


AUTHOR: Lonnie A. Nelson, Margaret MacDonald, Christina Stall & Renee Pazdan

Active duty soldiers with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received Interactive Metronome (IM) training in addition to standard rehabilitation care (SRC), demonstrated statistically significant improvements on 21 out of 26 neuropsychological batteries in the areas of attention, inhibition, processing speed, motor speed, immediate memory, and delayed memory compared to soldiers that only received SRC.


  • n=46 active duty soldiers, 21–49 years of age, approximately 29 months post TBI were randomly assigned to: • experimental group: 18 received SRC plus 15 1-hr IM training sessions
  • control group: 18 received SRC only
  • soldiers all had blast-related mild-to-moderate TBI and displayed persistent, chronic cognitive deficits
  • to control for bias, investigators completing pre-post assessments were blinded to the participants randomized group
  • assessments included: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA-CPT), Delis–Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D-KEFS) Trail Making and Color–Word Interference subtests, Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Grip Strength and Grooved Pegboard, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV), including Digit Span, Letter–Number Sequencing, Digit–Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search subtests & Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Mayo–Portland Adaptability Inventory–4, Satisfaction With Life Scale, & The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C).


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