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Assessing Children’s Praxis: Validating Long-Form Assessment in Interactive Metronome®

Study - Published in The Journal Korean Academy of Sensory Integration


Pediatric, Motor Skills

The aim of this study is to verify validity of Long Form Assessment, which is an Interactive Metronome measure (LFA-IM), as a measurement of praxis of children.

This thought-provoking study, running from March to July 2015, recruited 25 children aged 6 to 11, some with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and others without, from a local university hospital and community in Gyeoung-Nam province and Busan.

The magic key to validating LFA-IM? The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). This robust tool was used to compare results from LFA-IM for both children with and without ADHD, aiming to unearth the discriminative validity of LFA-IM.

For concurrent validity, the correlation between LFA-IM and BOT-2 was thoroughly explored.

Intriguingly, findings revealed significant differences in the total scores of LFA-IM between children with ADHD and those without. In terms of concurrent validity, a potent negative correlation surfaced between the total scores of LFA-IM and BOT-2. Specific areas like hand control, fine-motor accuracy, hand dexterity, and balance control displayed strong correlations with LFA-IM.

This study validates LFA-IM as an effective tool to evaluate praxis in children, hinting at its promising clinical utility. However, the results also serve as a springboard for future research with a larger cohort, to further solidify these findings. Clinicians, gear up to delve into this promising research and uncover the potential of Interactive Metronome and LFA-IM in assessing praxis in children.

Abridged Summary & Results of Study

Validity of Long Form Assessment in Interactive Metronome® As a Measure of Children’s Praxis

Authors: Kyeong-Mi Kim, Seo-Yoon Heo, Mi-Su Kim, Soo-Min Lee


This study validated use of the Interactive Metronome (IM) Long Form Assessment as a measure of praxis in children. There were significant differences in the IM LFA scores between children with and without ADHD (p<. 05). Additionally, a high correlation between IM LFA scores and BOT-2 for the area of hand control (rs=-.532) (p<.05) and high negative correlation for the area of fine-motor accuracy (rs=-.447), hand dexterity (rs=-.532), and balance control (rs=-.623) (p<. 05) were discovered.


  • n=25 children ages 6-11 with and without ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • to evaluate discriminative ability of IM LFA for the assessment of praxis, children completed the LFA and scores were correlated with performance on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2)

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